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VIETNAM sketch - Part III

19/09/2017 574 Viewed

Finance

The State Bank of Viejtnam, the central bank, issues the national currency, the dong and oversees the country’s banking system. Known until 1975 as the National Bank of Vietnam in the north, the State Bank of Vietnam formerly functioned as a government monopoly in the banking sector. With the economic reforms of the late 1980s, however, the government recognized that this structure was inadequate to attract badly needed foreign trade and investment. Consequently, in a series of systemic changes from 1988–91, four state-owned commercial banks were created from preexisting institutions, and several joint venture banks were established. As international investment gradually increased in the 1990s, foreign commercial banks were allowed to establish branch offices in Vietnam. In 2004 branches of foreign and joint-venture banks were allowed to join the Viet Nam Bank Association, and two years later, foreign banks were permitted to offer a full array of banking services.

Trade

Both parts of Vietnam experienced trade deficits during the war, and deficits continued after reunification. A trade embargo imposed by the United States exacerbated problems of low efficiency and poor quality control that hampered exports. In the first decade after reunification, the value of exports was only one-third that of imports. The Soviet Union and the communist countries of eastern Europe came to be Vietnam’s most important trading partners.

Vietnam’s move to broaden trade relations as part of its larger program of economic reforms took on added urgency in the late 1980s and early 1990s with the breakup of the Soviet Union and the demise of the communist governments in eastern Europe. Because trade with these areas was drastically reduced, Vietnam shifted its orientation more heavily toward Asia, and was admitted to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1995. Shortly thereafter, Singapore, along with Japan and China, emerged as Vietnam’s major bidirectional trading partners. South Korea and Taiwan also became significant suppliers of imports. Non-Asian countries figured more prominently as recipients of Vietnamese exports. The United States quickly rose as Vietnam’s primary export destination, following a trade agreement between the two countries in 2001. Other important non-Asian recipients of Vietnamese goods have included Australia, Germany and France.

Vietnam’s aggressive reform measures increased exports and narrowed the trade deficit considerably. However, rapid industrialization fueled by foreign direct investment caused the deficit to begin growing again. In 2001 the country opened its state markets to foreign competitors, and in January 2007 it joined the World Trade Orgnization (WTO). Although the government maintains some restrictions on foreign exchange and upholds various bans, quotas, and surcharges, its efforts to liberalize its markets have had an overwhelmingly positive effect on the country’s economy.

Machinery, petroleum products, iron, steel, garments, and leather account for the bulk of Vietnam’s imports. Most of these products fuel the country’s expanding industrial sector. The majority of Vietnam’s export revenues are generated by crude petroleum, garments, footwear, and seafood, and electronic products are of growing importance. Coffee, once among Vietnam’s primary generators of export revenue, has begun to rebound after a damaging decline in prices at the end of the 20th century.

Source: britannica